Physics of homeopathic medicines

Introduction by Prof. Louis Rey†
(Abstract of a seminar in Rome 20-21 of October 2009:
Ethique et Spiritualité de la Santé – Médecines traditionnelles
et complémentaires. Recherches et orientations
A persistent issue in the assessment of homeopathy by
classical academics, especially in the field of so-called
“hard sciences”, is the fact that, in high and ultra-high
dilutions, there are no more traces of any original chemical.
Hence, they claim that these different solutions are,
indeed, all the same and no more than the mere solvent
itself. This radical assumption proved to be wrong, at least
in the light of several centuries of careful clinical observations,
which did show evidence, that high dilutions were
not only active in therapeutics but that they also had
distinct personalities, both properties which could not be
found in the solvent used for their preparation. Quite obviously,
this problem has been a definite challenge for all
researchers in physics, chemistry and material sciences.

Different physical methods to assess
high dilutions


A/ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (RMN) by Izel Botha
This paper seeks to perform a meta-analysis of the findings
of these studies and to draw a conclusion on the
nature of homoeopathic dilutions as well as the validity
of performing this type of inquiry into the nature of homeopathically
prepared medicines.
From the studies presented, two conclusions can be
drawn, the first dealing with the evolution of the thinking
processes associated with the studies that needed to be
conducted. The initial studies, conducted by Ross (146)
and Power (147), investigated the nature of Q potencies.
These researchers acknowledged that the theories as
to the molecular organization in solutions existed, but
they refrained from conclusively interpreting the results
in terms of those theories. Their research lead to Cason
(148) investigating the influence of the frequency of the
NMR spectrometer on results obtained. Davies (149)
and Malan (150) investigated the role of dilution on the
physico-chemical structure of the homeopathic solutions,
showing that information storage does take place in the
solution, but that different dilution methods result in different
solutions, even when the theoretical dilution level
is equal. Malan’s (150) mention of dilution level and succussion
opened the door for investigation of the effect of
various potentization methods. Hofmeyr (151), Lyell (152)
and Botha (153) each investigated different variables that
may be introduced during the manufacturing process,
particularly looking at the number of succussions and
the effect of trituration. Erasmus (154) took this one step
further by investigating the mechanics of the succussion
process. These researchers interpreted their results
based on the theories of Resch and Gutmann (155) and
Anagnostatos (156).
This body of knowledge has inspired Allsopp (157) to
look into the effect of energy transfer into the solution
– whether it is imperative that the energy is imprinted
mechanically by hand production of the remedies, or if it
can equally be achieved through electromagnetic means.
In comparing the studies, it is evident that both trituration
and serial dilution change the physico-chemical properties
of the solvent to produce distinct medicines.

Conclusions: The meta-analysis supports the conclusion
that different potentization methods result in medicines
with different physico-chemical properties. One can also
conclude that NMR Spectroscopy is a valuable tool in
assessing the physico-chemical effect that potentization
methods have on the lactose and water/ethanol bases
utilized in the manufacture of homeopathic medicines.
It works well to study a single compound and it is not
adapted to the investigation of a complex mix of different
substances. NMR may be used for low potencies and
only with the best available instrument. Other references,
Weingärtner (158), Williams (159), Barnard (160), Young
(161), Sach (162), Bol (163), Aabel (164), Milgrom (165),
Anagnostatos (166), Bellavite (167), Smith (168), Antonchenko
(169), Shaw (170).

New publication in the same area:
Demangeat JL. NMR water proton relaxation in unheated
and heated ultrahigh aqueous dilutions of histamine: Evidence
for an air-dependent supramolecular organization
of water. Journal of Molecular Liquids 2009;144:32-39.

B/ A new Magnetic Resonance method by K. Lenger
The “homeopathic information” in high homeopathic
potencies on sugar globule could be considered as
photons with frequencies in the MHz-region by scientific
evidence. These photons in high homeopathic potencies
were detected by two magnetic resonance-methods (171,
172): firstly by the modified photomultiplier-method and
secondly by the Tesla-coil method. Both methods allowed
determination of physical properties of these photons:
holistic, coherent quantum behavior, damping of the

magnetic field by resonance effect, at least two resonance
frequencies in the MHz-region, frequency spectra after
being excited by one of their characteristic resonance
frequencies, measurability of the degree of potencies by
separation of the photons from their carrier substances
alcohol or sucrose by increasing the electromagnetic
fields of their resonance frequencies. A device for measuring
the degree of the potencies and their resonance
frequencies must be developed for quality control of
them in future. Further investigations about the stability
of the remedies in different media: water, alcohol, sugar,
are still necessary. A physical model must be developed
in which way matter substance could be converted into
energy, into photons by succussion in alcoholic dilutions
and in triturations.
For a patient, the pathological pathways (173, 174) can be
regulated by this treatment.

C/UV – Visible spectrometry
A promising approach was reached when the dilutions
were studied near the upper limit of their ultra-violet
absorption spectrum (200 to 400 nm). Rao, Roy, Bell
and Hoover (175) obtained some interesting recordings
for ultra-molecular solutions of 3 different products selected
in totally different kingdom (Natrium muriaticum,
Pulsatilla, Lachesis) and were able to discriminate them
at the 30C level. Similar results were equally obtained by
Pollack and Wexler working on Havit, Apis mellifica and
Histaminum. This method, however, proved to be highly
sensitive to rather unforeseen parameters, like the time
of the day. Reproducibility has not yet been possible.
In the same area Wolf U, Wolf M, Heusser P, Thyrneysen
A, Baumgartner S, presented at the 65th LMHI Congress
the following study: Homeopathic Preparations of Quartz,
Sulfur and Copper Sulfate assessed by U.V. Spectroscopy.

D/Raman spectroscopy
Different attempts have been done to see whether a
close investigation of the Raman shift could help in discriminating
the dilutions among themselves. Once more
the operating conditions proved to be determinant: the
position of the tube, recording done in a dark room and
the same instrument. Under those conditions Rao (175)
could demonstrate that the spectral peaks corresponding
to different potencies of the same strain or dilutions
of the same potency from different sources are different.
Even if those differences are small, they look reproducible.

E/Dynamic Electrophotonic Capture:
Gaz Discharge Visualization – EPC/GDV

The introduction of the so-called EPC/GDV technique in
the research on high dilutions is a somewhat accidental
and unforeseen event. It results from the pioneering work
of Konstantin Korotkov who developed a completely
new process to analyze “the energy fields” on multiple
targets thanks to the analysis of the electrophotonic glow
stimulated by a train of controlled pulses of a high-tension
electromagnetic field, a technique based upon the Kirlian
effect. Applied to ultra-molecular dilutions by Iris Bell
(176), very small drops of liquid (0,02cc) gave successive
glow images under electric discharge, which could be
further processed thanks to the elaborative software of K.
Korotkov. The triple analysis of their fractality (shape), size
and brightness did show different patterns which, under
well-selected conditions, could be species-specific, and Iris
Bell discovered that a high dilution of Natrium muriaticum
had definitely a different overall finger-print than its original
solvent (ethanol in that particular case). It is most likely
that this innovative technique might open perspectives in
dilution research.

F/Calorimetric and Electric Measurements
In a completely different field, Elia, et al., (177) were able to
show that when a high dilution was mixed with an acid or
a base, the heat release was much more important than
it should be for a standard reference. He claimed that this
was due to the fact that, in the case of high dilutions, an
excess of energy was basically needed to “rupture” intrinsic
structures (so-called dissipative structures) resulting to
their preparation.
Similar discrepancies were also observed by Elia (178)
when he measured the electric conductivity of high dilutions,
an observation which was shared by Zacharias (179)
and his group in Brazil when they compared succused high
dilutions of Vincristine sulfate an inert solvent.
Another interesting approach in the field of electric measurements
is provided by the use of Impedance spectroscopy.
In that particular technique the behavior of a dilution is
assessed as a dielectric medium in low frequencies and
some preliminary research (Monod – Cemagref) did show
that the loss angle (Tg delta) and the dielectric constant are
substantially different from one dilution to its original solvent.
Another team (180) published a paper on the “Effect of
dielectric dispersion on potentised homeopathic medicines”
and concluded that using this method it is possible
to identify each homeopathic remedy in a solution even
above Avogadro’s number. The same observation was
confirmed by another team in India (181).

(abstract Prof. Louis Rey)
(182, 183)
Low-temperature thermoluminescence is a very sensitive
investigation tool and, for instance, could discriminate very
easily different highly diluted alumina colloids that could
not be distinguished by classical chemical analysis. On
that base this method was used to study inter alia, potassium
dichromate, sodium chloride and lithium chloride
preparations made in D20. For potassium dichromate, the
experiments carried out with Ilse Muchitsch and Michael
Frass showed very clearly that their “finger prints” were
totally different from the one of the heavy water alone even
in dilutions above Avogadro’s number.

This rapid survey of investigations performed on ultramolecular
dilutions by different physical methods confirms
that it is can be proven that, even beyond Avogadro’s
number, they are different from their pure solvent and
also specific to the precise chemicals dissolved at the
initial state of their preparation. Each dilution has its own
personality and can be identified by its own “finger-print.”
Complex fluids carry much more information than could be
expected and this provides a strong, positive background
for homeopathy.
To explain the clinical facts even in very high dilutions and
potentizations (remember that only 25 % of the daily
delivery of homeopathic medicines in a pharmacy – 75 %
being at molecular level), another scientific paradigm is
needed. For many years another scientific paradigm has
existed, the paradigm of body signifiers (184). With the
existence of such a scientific framework, the nature of
the homeopathic medicine begins to be understood and
even identified.

Editor: Dr Michel Van Wassenhoven, LMHI and ECH Secretary for Research.
Part of chapter VII of the document SCIENTIFIC FRAMEWORK OF HOMEOPATHY. Evidence Based Homeopathy 2012. Revised edition after 66th LMHI Congress, December 2011 (New Delhi, India).
Source: European Committee for Homeopathy web